PoT Primitives

Ranking Score

This is a numerical value that the protocol assigns to each time elector and time node. The ranking score operates similarly to Google’s page rank algorithm with three parameters: the node’s tenure on the Timechain, the node’s historical validation accuracy, and the average weighted value of the ranking score for the vicinity nodes. Nodes with high ranking scores have more chances of being selected to validate and confirm blocks to the Timechain.

Trust Index

The trust index measures the subscribers’ trust in the event data publishers submit to the platform. The network uses the trust index to offer a natural defense against publishers or tesseracts that may attempt to submit erroneous event data to the event data marketplace. Publishers and tesseracts that submit quality event data have their trust indices automatically improved.

Verifiable Delay Function

The network uses a verifiable delay function (VDF) to address clock variance problems that are common with classical consensus protocols. Most PoS algorithms usually tag each block with a wallclock to provide consistent timing. However, the validators’ time can only be accurate within one to two hours because of the network latencies and clock drifts on most nodes.
This has forced some protocols to lengthen their block time to achieve reasonable certainty about medium times, often at the cost of scalability and speed. In the Analog network, each time elector computes a VDF when submitting a block proposal to confirm that previous proofs existed and real time has passed between the prior and the current block.

Fixed Stake

In many PoS-powered chains, the number of staked tokens determines whether a node gets selected as a validator or not. Nodes with enough money (big spenders) have higher chances of being chosen to propose and confirm blocks to the detriment of smaller players. In our case, all the time nodes must stake an equal amount of $ANLOG tokens to propose or confirm blocks.
When combined with ranking score, this approach provides an equal opportunity for all the nodes to participate in validation and consensus processes. The fixed stake mechanism is also essential in bootstrapping the network and onboarding new nodes.